A Quick Guide to Solids

A solid is one of four basic states of matter. Its molecules are tightly packed and contain the least kinetic energy. Because they are rigid, solids can resist forces applied to their surfaces. Its structure and density make it an ideal substance to use in construction, medicine, and electronics. Here’s a quick primer on solids. Once you know these three important properties, you’ll be well on your way to understanding the properties of solids.


Crystalline solids have a defined structure; whereas, amorphous solids do not. Crystalline solids have a regular structure in three dimensions called a crystal lattice. The atomic order of a solid can vary according to its composition and cooling rate. Amorphous solids are characterized by their lack of long-range order. The order of atoms in a solid determines whether the substance is a solid or a liquid.

To understand a solid’s structure, we must know its composition. Crystalline solids contain specific elements and their density is determined by their relative ionic radii. These properties make them stable. Crystalline solids are not ionic solutions. Therefore, the structure of an ionic solid must be studied. For more information about the structure of solids, visit our website. We’ll explain how this solid structure is derived.


Solid density is a key property of matter. It refers to the amount of matter that fills a unit volume. It is not a quantity that is proportional to mass, but is an intensive property. This property can be used to identify unknown pure substances by comparing them to known reference densities. A solid’s density will change as it fills a given volume, and experimenters can choose a convenient amount to perform the measurements.

Mass density can be calculated from a variety of methods. The most common way is to use the formula for density, which equals mass divided by volume. The density of any substance is then measured using common units, such as grams per cubic centimetre, milliliters per cubic meter, and kilograms per cubic meter. Despite being a general concept, density can change according to temperature and pressure. Increasing the temperature or applying pressure to an object decreases its density, and the reverse happens if the temperature is too low.

Physical properties

There are two types of solid: polar and non-polar. Polar solids have no or weak electrical conductivity. These solids are extremely dense and don’t have a high melting point. Non-polar solids don’t conduct electricity, but are soft and can form giant molecules. They can also be both hard and soft. A solid’s melting point is the point at which it starts to melt. Both types of solids are similar to each other in other ways.

The defining physical properties of a solid are its density and mass. A solid’s density and structure depend on its arrangement of atoms. As a result, a solid has very little space between its constituent particles. It also has a fixed volume. Gases do not have any fixed shape or volume and have very low density. A solid will not expand unless the surrounding space is very small. Unlike liquids, gases have no fixed shape and are easily compressed.

Transition from solid to liquid to gas to plasma

The process of going from solid to liquid to gas to plasma is called a phase transition. It occurs when thermal motion of atoms causes them to collide and shatter, releasing electrons. In a phase transition, the thermal energy exceeds the ionization energy by a significant amount. This transition does not involve latent heat, as it does in melting and boiling. The transition is also known as a first-order phase change.

To understand this transition process, one must know the properties of the different phases of matter. Gases are made up of atoms and molecules that move freely, spreading apart. The transition from solid to liquid or from gas to plasma occurs by melting or deposition of solid matter. These changes occur at different temperatures and pressures. Solids change their state by boiling or decomposing at a lower temperature than a gas.