There are several theories of growth. They include Endogenous growth theory, Schumpeterian theory, Neoclassical theory, and the New growth model. Let’s examine some of the main features of these theories. Hopefully, they will give us a better idea of how to develop a theory of growth. This article also includes a brief discussion of each theory. The next section will discuss the implications for policy. A growth theory is a framework for understanding the growth of an economy and its future.
Endogenous growth theory
The Endogenous Growth Theory posits that economic growth is primarily a result of endogenous forces. This theory holds that investment in human capital, innovation, and knowledge contributes to economic growth. It is important to recognize that these factors are not always correlated. For instance, while innovation is often associated with economic growth, it is also the result of other factors, such as a higher standard of living and better education.
In the 1990s, the Endogenous Growth Theory was used to explain technological change. The theory sought to explain the rise of advanced technology as a result of profit-motivated R&D expenditure by private firms. The theory also highlighted the role of government subsidies and incentives for the private sector, which motivates firms to invest in research and development. In addition, this theory holds that government-funded research and development contribute to economic growth.
Schumpeterian growth theory
The Schumpeterian growth theory suggests that economic growth is based on innovation, rather than on consumption. The theory states that the major part of savings and accumulations arise from the use of new production techniques, products, and technologies. The rate of technological change, as measured by the ratio of total output to total consumption, determines the rate of capital accumulation. The theory assumes that technological advances are positive for a developing country, thereby enabling it to increase its living standards.
The Schumpeterian growth theory also highlights the importance of entrepreneurial activity as a driver of economic growth. In other words, if entrepreneurial innovation increases, then firms and industries will grow faster and more profitably. However, if creative destruction is the main source of productivity growth, then the statistical office measures it incorrectly. Furthermore, a Schumpeterian growth model suggests that the decline in productivity is related to the emergence of super-star firms that generate high profits and little value from labor.
Neoclassical growth theory
The Solow-Swan model, a form of exogenous growth theory, tries to explain long-run economic growth by examining population or labor growth, along with increases in productivity. Both of these factors drive increases in productivity, as do technological advances. These theories are widely used in governmental studies. However, despite the reliance on their main points, many have criticized them as being ineffective for explaining economic growth.
One of the primary problems with neoclassical growth theory is that the model underestimates capital dilution effects. This occurs when economists fail to account for the effects of age structure and depreciation of capital stock. This is problematic because it leads to the incorrect characterization of the rate of population growth. For example, the standard model of constant depreciation implies a population growth rate equal to negative constant savings ratio. However, growth rates below negative constant savings ratio indicate an ever-increasing capital/labor ratio and standard of living. Ultimately, such a model is unrealistic.
New growth theory
The New Growth Theory attempts to explain long-term economic growth by utilizing endogenous factors such as human capital, knowledge spillover, information technology, and technological innovation. The theory stresses the importance of empirical evidence as well as its optimality and usefulness for national policy making. The book critically evaluates dynamic and disequilibrium models and discusses policy implications such as structural adjustment, technological innovation, and spillover of knowledge. New Growth Theory can be useful for many applications, and is a valuable tool for assessing global economic development.
The New Growth Theory contends that the government should finance infrastructure projects as these create quasi-public goods. While the market would not provide adequate infrastructure without government funding, the state can act as both producer and financier of these goods. In addition, these infrastructure projects are associated with positive externalities, including increased tourism and reduced production costs. This is an interesting twist to the traditional growth theory, which posits that capital accumulation drives economic growth. But in practice, it is unlikely that private companies will produce more wealth and jobs than they need.