Several studies have been conducted to determine the efficacy of Ecklonia species. One study showed that PG isolated from ES significantly decreased hepatic lipid peroxidation in acetaminophen-induced rats. Another study showed that PG from Ecklonia species restored glutathione S-transferase activity. These findings suggest that Ecklonia species may be potent hepatoprotective agents.
The enzymatic extracts of Ecklonia species, such as dieckol, have a number of beneficial effects on human health. These compounds are used in nutraceuticals, pharmaceuticals, and functional foods, and consumer-driven development has produced marine-derived medicines. These compounds also stimulate apoptosis in cells that harbor ovarian cancer. The following sections discuss the benefits and mechanisms of action of dieckol and the potential role of Ecklonia in the treatment of ovarian cancer.
The phytochemical eckol (EGCD) inhibits oxidative stress by boosting antioxidant activity in cells. Compared with NAC, eckol has significantly higher antioxidant activity. Additionally, it induced HO-1 expression in HepG2 cells and activated Nrf2 through PI3K/Akt signaling pathways. The phlorotannins found in Ecklonia are naturally occurring compounds with strong antioxidant properties.
The phytochemicals in Ecklonia phlorotannins provide protection from UV radiation and microbial infections. Phlorotannins have been shown to exhibit broad biological activities, including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, radical scavenging, and anti-plasmin activity. Phlorotannins from Ecklonia species have demonstrated potential as anticancer agents and food additives.
The phlorotannins inhibit tumor cell proliferation by 50 percent, compared to untreated cells. Phlorotannins are effective in inhibiting cell migration and invasion and inhibit the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and E-cadherin. They also inhibit the expression of COX-2, a pro-inflammatory cytokine.
The pharmacological potential of Ecklonia species is undoubtedly enormous. Apart from being rich in various vitamins, minerals, dietary fiber, proteins, and polysaccharides, Ecklonia is also known to have anticarcinogenic, antioxidant, immunomodulatory, hypolipidemic, and anti-diadic properties. This algae has been the subject of a number of research studies. Listed below are some of them.
Protandioscin and Ecklonia cava have been known to inhibit VHSV in a cell culture system, as shown in a study. These extracts possess low toxicity and an effective concentration. Additionally, the inhibitory activity of these compounds was higher than pre-exposure and post-exposure measurements in a plaque reduction assay. The antiviral activity was also time-dependent, increasing with exposure time.
The phlorotannins in Ecklonia cava are non-generic, complex and not used in the food industry. The Panel has evaluated information provided about the product, its production process, and batch-to-batch variability. Ecklonia cava and other brown algae have a long history of food use in Asian countries. These products are available for sale in the USA, Japan and Korea.
Currently, the European Food Safety Authority does not have adequate data on the safety of Ecklonia cava phlorotannins. However, the Agency does recommend limiting their use in food supplements to the maximum recommended daily intake. This level is not high enough for children. However, it is safe for adults to consume it in reasonable amounts. The European Food Safety Authority recommends that food supplements containing Ecklonia cava phlorotannins be labelled and used according to the guidelines set out in the Annex to the Regulation.
Efficacy on cisplatin-induced cell death
Studies show that Ecklonia has anti-cancer properties. It inhibits the PI3K/AKT/NF-kappaB signaling pathway and inhibits the invasion of glioblastoma-initiating cells. It also suppresses the expression of MMP-2. This herb is also effective at inhibiting the growth of xenografts, which are tumors that have acquired the characteristics of cancer stem cells.
It also inhibits tumor growth by affecting the expression of mucin 4 in pancreatic cancer cells. In a study using cancer cells, g-Mangostin caused significant inhibition of apoptosis and reduced ROS. The compound also inhibits the growth of human colon cancer DLD-1 cells. Further, Ecklonia inhibits cisplatin-induced cell death.