Solids are materials made of different types of molecules. They can be classified into different crystal systems such as tetragonal, hexagonal, cubic, and molten. They may also be made of refractory materials like metals. Let’s look at the different types of solids to understand their different properties. In this article, you will learn how to identify a solid based on its chemical composition. The next section will talk about the seven types of crystal systems.
Molecular solids are solids composed of discrete molecules bound together by van der Waals forces, dipole-dipole, and quadrupole interactions. The physical properties of molecular solids are similar to those of solids, and the study of molecular solids will enhance your understanding of these materials. Read on to learn more about these fascinating materials. We’ll also discuss how these solids can be manipulated to manipulate light.
A network solid is a kind of chemical compound in which the atoms are bound together by covalent bonds in a continuous network. There are no individual molecules within a network solid, and it may be considered a macromolecule. These compounds may contain as many as a hundred atoms. Here’s how they form:
Metals are elements in the periodic table that are good conductors of heat and electricity. These elements are solid in nature and contain metallic bonds. Non-metals, by contrast, are brittle and unable to conduct either heat or electricity. While both types of elements are common in nature, they do not have the same properties. Some are intermediate between metals and non-metals. They are called metalloids, and they exhibit characteristics of both.
Refractory materials are solid. They are very expensive and their failure can result in the loss of time, energy, and product. As a result, refractory materials are essential for many industrial applications. There are several types of refractory materials, which are characterized by their physical and chemical composition. Thermal conductivity, compactness, and corrosion resistance are some of the key characteristics that differentiate refractory materials.
A semiconductor is a single crystal whose atoms are arranged in a periodic three-dimensional structure. In pure silicon, atoms have four outermost electrons, four innermost electrons, and two more outermost ones. These atoms share electron pairs that form covalent bonds. These bonds hold two atoms together by the force of attraction. In contrast, isolated atoms have only discrete levels of energy.