Properties of Solids and Liquids

Solids are materials that are made of atoms or molecules. They are classified as either crystalline, noncrystalline, or amorphous. Here is an example of a solid: A class in Ruby uses a MySQLConnection and a PasswordReminder class. The latter depends on the former, as D in SOLID states. If the PasswordReminder class changes the database engine, it would require editing the PasswordReminder class, violating the open-close principle.


A crystalline solid is a material composed of small crystals with a regular atomic arrangement. Because of this regular arrangement, the atoms, ions, and molecules of a crystalline solid are ordered and have a certain shape. In addition, crystalline solids are generally more durable than other solids. The following sections discuss the properties of crystalline solids and discuss their differences from other solids. This article also looks at the properties of different types of solids, such as water ice.

Crystalline solids can be divided into three categories: metallic, non-metallic, and ionic. Metals, on the other hand, contain atoms that are joined together in large sheets by a metallic bond. The presence of these atoms gives them an electrical and thermal conductivity that is unmatched by other solids. The presence of these atoms also contributes to their color and luster. In addition to being strong and resistant, metallic crystalline solids also resist deformation due to external force.


The Journal of Noncrystalline Solids is a peer-reviewed scientific journal devoted to amorphous materials. Founded in 1968, it is published by Elsevier. The journal’s current editors are Barrett G. Potter, Edgar Dutra Zanotto, and Josef W. Zwanziger. It features articles related to all aspects of amorphous materials, such as their properties, composition, and physical properties.

Crystalline solids have a three-dimensional periodic structure, with constituent particles bound together via faces and planes. The smallest unit of a crystalline solid is called the unit cell. Each unit cell is identical, similar to bricks in a wall. Noncrystalline solids have no long-range order. They are characterized by the following major categories:


The properties of an amorphous solid depend on the arrangement of its molecules and atoms. Unlike a solid, a liquid cannot be defined by its spatial arrangement. Rather, the properties of a liquid depend on rapid molecular rearrangement and motion. The desired compound was initially present in an amorphous solid. As the solid was gradually cooled, the compound crystallized. This method produces solids with various properties, including crystalline structure.

Because of the lack of long-range order, amorphous materials present a unique challenge for experimental and computational investigations. Modern techniques to study amorphous solids involve a combination of spectroscopic and diffraction methods. Raman scattering, infrared spectroscopy, and vibrational spectroscopy are used to probe molecular structure, bonding, and vibrational excitations. These methods provide information on the dynamics of amorphous solids, while ab initio calculations can provide insights into the vibrations of glass.