The SOLID principles were developed by Robert C. Martin in 2000, and later coined by Michael Feathers. Without good design principles, a software application can become rigid, fragile, immobile, or viscous. The SOLID principles are meant to address this problem. Here, we’ll examine the basic concepts of solids and liquid crystals. You can also learn more about Bose-Einstein condensate and glass ceramics.
Molecular solids are materials made of atoms that are bonded together via covalent bonds. They are relatively soft and often have low melting points. Their properties vary depending on the number of atoms and their electrostatic charge. Molecular solids usually have a low melting point, but can still be highly conductive. Molecular solids are made up of different types of monomers, each of which has a unique set of properties.
Amorphous materials are solids without characteristic symmetry. Unlike their covalent counterparts, amorphous materials do not exhibit regular planes of cleavage when cut. Their edges may even curve. They are called isotropic because their properties remain constant regardless of the direction of force. Molecular solids are also used in electronics. But they are not the only type of solids. There are some important differences between these two types of materials.
Liquid crystals are unique in that they exhibit properties that are halfway between those of solids and liquids. They may flow like a liquid, but their molecules are oriented crystal-like. Regardless, liquid crystals are very interesting materials, and many scientists are studying them to develop new products and processes. Here’s an introduction to liquid crystals. Once you understand how they work, you can design your own liquid crystal products.
The fundamental principle behind LCs is that they are made up of molecules whose orientations can be altered by a magnetic or electric field. An electric field, applied perpendicular to a liquid crystal cell, causes the director to change orientations and change shape. This transformation is called a Fredericks transition. This process has also been applied to crystals made from a combination of a magnetic and electric field. However, the exact mechanism of how these molecules change orientation is still unclear.
In condensed matter physics, Bose-Einstein condensates are unusually cold states of matter. Typically, this state forms when a gas of bosons with low density cools to very close to absolute zero. Typically, this form is stable and does not decay under ordinary circumstances. Here are some interesting facts about Bose-Einstein condensates. Let’s look at two examples.
A Bose-Einstein condensates’ low heat capacity makes them ineffective for cooling whole people. Their evaporation under illumination would be accompanied by intense photon absorption. In contrast, their ultrasensitive nature makes them useful in sensitive applications such as gravitational waves research and magnetic fields. For example, a Bose-Einstein condensate can measure the gravity and acceleration of a proton, which is a type of gravitational wave.
Microwave assisted sinter-crystallisation is a method used to form glass powder into dental restorations. This method can reduce the time required for sintering-crystallisation and yield a dense, translucent glass-ceramics monolithic body that meets the requirements of Dental Ceramics ISO 6872:2015. The glass-ceramics composition may have a glass transition temperature ranging from 420 to 700 degC.
The material can be molded into virtually any stable shape. It is capable of being made into sensors, lighting fixtures, and even artificial organs. Its transparency and hardness make it useful for various applications. Scientists suggest that this type of glass-ceramic could be used for sensors on infrastructure facilities and robots. They may even be used to monitor aging infrastructure. A special issue of Optical Materials Express is dedicated to this new material.