The Basic Elements of the Egyptian Civilization

In this article, we will look at the basic elements of the Egyptian civilization: Environment, religion, political system, and economic base. It is important to note that the Egyptian civilization was not a democracy, but rather a system of government where the pharaoh ruled by decree. The pharaoh was the ultimate authority and was heavily taxed and regarded as exalted by his people. Moreover, the pharaoh was the source of all law, including taxation and law.


The Egyptians placed great importance on their religious beliefs and practices. Their mythology centered on the gods Osiris and Isis. The first king of Egypt, Osiris, was murdered by his evil brother Set and was resurrected by his sister, Isis, who bore the heir, Horus. The gods fought each other and their son Horus was born to avenge his father’s death. The Egyptians were concerned about the fate of their souls after death and they believed that the deceased would stay in the body until the resurrection. Symbolic depictions of the gods and goddesses often referred to the true nature of the beings represented by them.

The Egyptians also believed that every individual had a ba. It was believed that a person’s soul would continue to reside in the body after death and would face dangers and reincarnation in the Duat. In addition to worshiping the gods, Egyptians used rituals to communicate with the dead and interacted with their gods. In addition to their belief in a soul after death, the Egyptians believed in the afterlife. This belief was reflected in the rituals that were performed at temples.

Economic base

Before unification, estates were an integral part of the Egyptian state. Inscribed tomb labels refer to localities and estates that produced goods and delivered them to the royal mortuary complexes. Similarly, hundreds of inscribed vessels record the names of the officials and centers responsible for delivering offerings to the funerary monuments of Djoser and his predecessors. These institutions, collectively known as Hwt-aAt, are considered the most important units of royal production in Egypt.

Many authors who studied the economy of ancient Egypt incorporated Polanyi’s theory into their accounts. Similarly, Bleiberg, Janssen, and Mario Liverani used Polanyi’s theory to analyze the economic structure of the Late Bronze Age and the Early Roman Empire. Regardless of how the economic base of these civilizations arose, the concept of redistribution was still a central theme.


Ancient Egypt was located in northeastern Africa, and had four distinct geographical zones, each with a specific natural environment and role within the Egyptian state. Cities flourished only in the Nile Valley, the Delta, and the desert oases. Ancient Egyptians were keen observers of their environment, and associated these areas with life and abundance. They therefore tended to build their cities near the river to take advantage of the abundance of these natural resources.

Climate change has presented an increasing challenge to human civilization, and ancient Egypt experienced several major climate changes over its history. In addition to changing weather patterns, the annual flooding of the Nile was critical to the agricultural production of ancient Egypt. However, as the climate changed, these floods became less frequent, and sometimes even did not occur for many years at a time. This makes the ancient Egyptians’ response to changing weather patterns an important lesson in human response to environmental stressors.

Political system

The political system of Egyptian civilization developed during the First Dynasty, when the vizier ruled the country. He was appointed by the Pharaoh, and was responsible for governing the entire land and making sure its people were happy. A vizier was like a modern day Prime Minister, as he was obligated to be fair in his judgment and could not act outside the laws of the land. In addition to the vizier, there were other important officials, such as the scribes.

The ancient Egyptian government was ruled by a Pharaoh, a supreme leader of the country and religion. The Pharaoh had a hierarchy of leaders below him. The primary leader of government under the Pharaoh was the Vizier, or Chief Overseer of the Land. All officials under the vizier reported to the vizier. The first vizier was Imhotep, who architected the first pyramid and was later made a god.

Religious intolerance

The United States government’s recent report on religious freedom in Egypt makes interesting reading. While Egypt’s textbooks are not nearly as intolerant as those in Saudi Arabia, they do not promote tolerance between different religious communities. While a number of U.S. State Department reports have been critical of Egypt’s religious tolerance, this misguided talk does damage the cause of religious freedom. In addition, it contradicts many U.S. State Department reports on Egyptian religious freedom.

Egypt’s Christian religious establishment has followed a similar pattern. While the majority of Copts belong to the indigenous Orthodox Church, a minority of Christians belong to the Catholic Church and various Protestant sects. The state has historically regarded the Protestant mainstream churches as enemies. Other notable religious groups in Egypt have been targeted by the state, including the Independent St. Athanasius Orthodox Church, as well as the Mormons.