The Basics of Solids

Besides crystals, the four most common solids are also known as metals and glass. The names given to these materials include plastic, metal, glass, and crystalline solids. We shall explore these four materials in detail. If you are still unsure about their chemical composition, you can refer to a textbook to find out the characteristics of each one. The following sections provide the basics of solids. You will discover the different types of solids and their physical properties.

Crystalline solids

Whether they are crystals or molecules, crystalline solids are composed of identical units that are arranged in a periodic pattern. These solids exhibit properties that depend on the nature of the forces that hold them together. The four basic types of crystalline solids are molecular, ionic, metallic, and covalent. These properties are listed in the following table. Crystalline solids are solids that have the same properties as their constituents but differ in some ways.


The properties of metals vary considerably. Most metals are solid at room temperature, because the intermolecular forces are so strong that they reduce interstitial space. Their low kinetic energy means that at room temperature they remain solid. This makes them good conductors of heat and electricity. They can also be alloyed with other metals to form new substances. Brass, for example, is an alloy of Copper and Zinc. Copper and Nickel are also alloys. Metals are common and important to our everyday lives. Buildings, trains, cars, mobile phones, and more contain metals.


A glass is a solid that consists of molecules that have enough cohesion to flow slowly. As they approach the glass transition, the molecules in the solid change to a more crystal-like state. This results in a material that has high density and a very low viscosity. Because the two types of materials differ in their structure, we need to know a little bit about these types of substances. To learn more about these materials, read on!


A solid plastic is a substance that has a specific structure and can be molded or formed. It is made up of a polymer composed of carbon atoms and sometimes other elements such as nitrogen and oxygen. Each polymer has a different chemical structure, with the plasticizers, fillers, and other additives adding specific properties. This information is used to categorize plastics. They are then further classified by the processes and properties used to make them.


In terms of physical properties, ceramics are solid. But why are they so solid? In this article, we’ll discuss the properties of structural ceramics and their potential tribological applications. For example, we’ll discuss the superlow friction of silicon carbide and silicon nitride, as well as the wear-protective properties of hydrated tribochemical layers. And we’ll touch on the environmental and economic benefits of ceramics.

Glass is a form of solid

The first time glass was discovered was before molecular physics was understood. During the process of making glass, the material is cooled from a liquid state below its melting point. This is a process known as super cooling. Under these conditions, the atoms are not tightly packed and instead flow slowly. As a result, glass forms a more organized crystalline structure. Its structure is less organized than a solid but can still be used in practical applications.


Solid liquids differ from gases in two important ways. One is that they are less dense. Unlike gases, liquids are able to flow and change their shapes when stressed. This allows for a wide variety of fluid-like properties, such as buoyancy, surface tension, and fluidity. In addition, they are less dense than solids, making them an excellent choice for transporting bulk materials. However, there are several differences between solids and liquids.


While liquids and solids possess certain characteristics, gases are different. Liquids flow, change their shape, and have a relatively low density, while gases are much less dense than either. Liquids are also known as runny or “wettin’,” and can withstand moderate compression forces. Gases, on the other hand, can be easily compressed, allowing them to flow freely without compromising their integrity.