The Egyptian Civilization

Throughout history, there have been many theories about the origins of the Egyptian civilization. Scholars believe that Menes or Narmer unified Egypt in about 3100 BCE. There are no definitive sources to prove that Menes was the same person as Narmer, but it is generally thought that he unified both Upper and Lower Egypt. But what exactly was this civilization? What were its main achievements? Which are the best examples of Egyptian art and architecture?

Ancient Egyptians

Egypt’s geologic conditions made it possible to cultivate a wide variety of building materials. Unlike today, the land of Ancient Egypt was fertile and had a predictable inundation cycle. As a result, Egyptian farmers were able to achieve a high crop yield from their annual crops and stored surpluses to be used later. These practices provided the basis for Egyptian wealth and helped the Egyptians maintain their position as the richest civilization in the ancient Middle East until the 1st millennium bce.


Religion in ancient Egypt was a powerful force in their lives. They consulted their gods to explain the world’s mysteries. Their gods, such as Heka, who ruled the sky and brought day and night, famine, and light, were all personified. Using the appropriate methods, they invoked the gods for assistance and protection. Though largely positive and useful, magic was also sometimes used for antisocial purposes. Various texts and statues testify to this practice.


Egypt has spent decades searching for a sense of national identity. By building its own civilization state, Egypt hopes to join an emerging club of nations that are centered on their historical traditions and reject Western cultural dominance. As Western capitals, we must understand Egypt’s internal politics and foreign policy to know how to deal with it. Here are some of the key players in the Egyptian story. Read on to learn more. This article will outline the main political and cultural players in Egypt’s history.


Ancient Egypt was a world-renowned center for art, with many a skilled craftsman to be found. Whether it be pottery, carving, or jewelry, the Egyptians had a vast repertoire. Many of the craftsmen who occupied this position served the royal institutions or the nobility. While the economy of the ancient Egypt was flourishing, the quality of certain products reflected the social status of the craftsmen. For example, furniture for the upper class was elegantly carved and painted, whereas furniture for the middle class and poor were crudely crafted and painted.


Egypt had an extensive agricultural tradition that persisted even after the fall of the Byzantine Empire. While the major commercial fields and farms of modern Egypt are far more efficient, old patterns of agricultural production can still be found in smaller settlements and rural areas. World History Encyclopedia is an independent nonprofit organization that supports a global effort to engage people with our cultural heritage and improve history education. Here are some interesting facts about agriculture in ancient Egypt. Read on to learn more.

Trade with Lebanese port of Byblos

The ancient city of Byblos was an important part of the Egyptian trade network and the power relations of the Levant. Ancient Byblos rulers maintained close relationships with Egyptian pharaohs, and were instrumental in the invention of the Phoenician alphabet. The city was a wealthy and important trading center, receiving valuable goods from Egypt. It is one of the oldest cities in the world, and has a rich and varied history.

Construction of great pyramids

The early builders of the Great Pyramid faced a problem: how to move the massive stone blocks from one place to another? A statue of Djehutihotep in the Twelfth Dynasty illustrates the problem. He required 172 men to pull the 60-ton statue. Denys Stocks estimated that 45 workers could pull a 16.3-ton block. The solution was not immediately apparent, but it was eventually devised by Dr. R. H. G. Parry.