Various theories on the nature of personality are available in the scientific literature. They include Humanistic theories, Biological theories, Behaviorist theories, and Somatological theories. Let’s discuss each of them to better understand how people behave. Which one of these theories is most likely to be accurate? Hopefully, this article will provide some useful information. But first, let’s understand what a “Big Five” personality is. These traits are broadly defined by psychologists.
Humanistic theories of personality
Humanistic theories of personality focus on the uniqueness of individuals and the positive qualities that all people possess. They suggest that a healthy personality results from reaching one’s full potential and realizing one’s potential. Humanistic theories of personality were developed by psychologist Carl Rogers, who believed that all people are born with good qualities and significant potential. These theories were developed through Rogers’ clinical work with clients. Despite its flaws, humanistic theories have had many positive effects on psychological research.
Biological theories of personality
The biological theory of personality explains traits and characteristics by way of the brain. The basic concepts of this theory are related to the psychology of survival and reproduction. For example, it explains that human beings choose a partner on the basis of the parental investment and the underlying biological structure. As a result, males generally prefer older females who are physically attractive and have high reproductive abilities. Further, arousal levels can be related to the scale of extraversion.
Behaviorist theories of personality
Many psychologists agree that personal characteristics influence behavior. These characteristics include innate temperaments, learned habits, beliefs, opportunities, punishments, and chance occurrences. According to behaviorist theories, we can alter personality traits through changing our environment. Some scientists say infant temperaments vary as soon as they are born. Some are eager to explore the world and others are fearful or passive. These differences in temperaments could help us understand how our personality develops.
Somatological theories of personality
Somatological theories of personality focus on socialization and the influence of environment on human behavior. Socialization involves the process of learning through observation. Cognitive factors are derived from the way we interpret the social environment. As a result, personality emerges in behavior. The interaction of cognitive and social factors is called reciprocal determinism. However, this relationship is not complete. In some cases, social factors may be important in influencing behavior, while others may not.
Projective measures of personality
Projective measures of personality use ambiguity as a stimulus, often visual, to challenge the testee’s ability to maintain coherence under stress. Some examples of such measures include the Rorschach inkblot method and the Thematic Apperception Test, which require test takers to answer a series of ambiguous questions. Each of these measures challenges the testee’s ability to maintain coherence under stress, drawing on their signature pattern of meaning-making.