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What Are Solids?

When we talk about solids, we generally refer to crystalline solids. Crystals have regular arrangements of particles, so they are incompressible – they cannot be compressed into smaller shapes. This is because the geometry of the crystal guarantees that all bonds are of equal strength. A crystalline solid will have a certain melting point, where heat is used to break all of its bonds at once. Here are a few examples of solids and their melting points.

Molecular solids

Molecular solids are a type of material made up of discrete molecules that are bonded together by van der Waals forces, dipole-dipole, and quadrupole interactions. As the name suggests, these materials are solids made of discrete molecules, and are therefore a good fit for studying solid state physics. Here’s a brief introduction to molecular solids. We’ll also discuss the different types of molecules that make up solids, and how they are formed.

Minerals

Among the eight elements that make up the Earth’s crust are sulfur, chromite, and iron. The elements that make up these metals are called “native” elements. Most of the Earth’s crust consists of these eight elements. The following elements form minerals:

Metals

A metal is a solid material with a specific physical and chemical properties. It is also a good conductor of heat and electricity. As such, metals are used in a variety of applications. Metals are also ductile and malleable, making them useful for forming wires. Furthermore, they reflect light well, a property known as luster. Metals are solids except for mercury, which is a liquid at room temperature. They exhibit high electrical conductivity due to free-moving electrons. This connection between solids and electrons is formalized by the Wiedemann-Franz law.

Organic solids

The study of organic compounds is called organic chemistry. Organic compounds are made up of carbon-carbon covalent bonds and the study of them determines the properties of these materials. The exact structural formula of an organic solid is also known as its chemical formula. There are many different types of organic compounds. The following are some common ones. Read on to learn more about them. Organic solids are a variety of substances that are composed primarily of carbon and are used in a wide variety of applications.

Liquid crystals

Liquid crystals are found in many biological systems. The myelin, the fatty material extracted from nerve cells, and tobacco mosaic virus form rod-like phases. Cholesteric crystals, which occur in the skin of fish and plants, have an arrangement that is similar to a helix. Observers have also noted that liquid crystals in biological systems exhibit brilliant colour effects. Their properties are so fascinating that scientists are now trying to understand their biological applications.

Amorphous solids

Amorphous solids are materials that do not have definite shapes or regular atomic arrangements. Their chemistry and structure are similar to those of crystalline solids, but they lack the order and characteristics of a crystal. Crystalline materials have definite melting points and can be separated by x-ray diffraction, while amorphous solids do not have clear crystalline structures. Amorphous solids are also flammable and tend to melt at a variety of temperatures.