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What Is a Solid?

A solid is a material made up of several different molecules. These molecules can be classified into different crystal systems. These solids can be cubic, tetragonal, hexagonal, monoclinic, triclinic, or orthorhombic. Crystal systems are also known as Bravais lattices. In this article, we will learn about the four types of solids and what makes them different. You can also learn more about the properties of different solids and their properties.

Molecular solids

Molecular solids are made up of discrete molecules bound together by van der Waals forces, dipole-dipole interactions, or quadrupole interactions. These forces can be weak or strong depending on the chemistry involved. In general, molecular solids are very dense, which means that they’re often referred to as ‘liquid metals.’ Molecular solids are a common material in science labs, and they’re found in all kinds of materials, from metals to semiconductors.

Crystalline solids

Amorphous and crystalline solids both have the same chemical properties, but they differ in their structure and their melting points. Crystalline solids have regular arrays of atoms, and they are held together by uniform intermolecular forces. The learning objective of this module is to define the difference between these two types of solids and the properties of each. Amorphous and crystalline solids differ in their melting points and ionization potential, so a better understanding of these characteristics is essential.

Amorphous solids

In contrast to crystalline materials, amorphous solids are non-crystalline and lack long-range order. Despite the name, these materials are common in our everyday lives and are essential in pharmaceutical research. Recently, renewed interest in glass science has given amorphous solids a new lease on life. What makes them so fascinating? Read on to learn more. Listed below are some interesting facts about these non-crystalline solids.

Ionic solids

Ionic solids are highly brittle crystals that consist of parallel layers of cautions and anions. The high density of these solids results from the close packing of ions. Ionic solids have a relatively low melting point. The properties of ionic solids are highly dependent on the nature of their charges. For instance, higher charges lead to higher lattice energy, which makes the solid more stable. For this reason, ionic solids are often referred to as crystalline solids.

Glass ceramics

Solid glass ceramics are composed of layers of crystalline apatite or wollastonite that are intergrown to form an insulating material. A-W glass-ceramics have superior mechanical and physical properties compared to bioglass or sintered Hap. The current research confirms that glass-ceramics made from industrial waste can be used for construction purposes. Nonetheless, further research is needed to increase their mechanical strength.

Sand

Solid sand is a basic material that forms the basis for concrete, as well as being an elementary component of soils. It is formed as a result of the decomposition of crystalline rocks. Sand has unique properties arising from its disordered arrangement of grain sizes. When mixed with water, it can form sandcastles or arches. In contrast, a building in San Francisco’s Marina District sank during the Loma Prieta earthquake, turning the wet soil into liquid.