What is a solid? A solid is a substance that maintains its shape and resists forces applied perpendicular to its surface. This article will explain the differences between solids and liquids and explain what makes one different from another. In addition, this article will discuss what thermal energy is and why it’s important to know what a solid is made of. Here’s a brief definition of solids. They’re not liquids and are the most stable of all the solid types.
Solids are objects that keep their own shape
What are solids? Solids are objects that have tightly packed molecules that maintain their shape under different physical conditions. They also have many properties and can be observed using our five senses. In addition to being hard and rigid, solids are also observable and measurable. Here are some examples of solids:
They do not flow
Gases and liquids flow because they have less intermolecular forces. Gas molecules are also less dense and so can flow. On the other hand, solids do not flow because their molecules are too closely packed. This means that the molecules of solids cannot move and cannot flow. Flowing is possible only with liquids and gases. So, how can liquids and solids flow? The difference between liquids and gases can be attributed to their different densities and the difference in intermolecular forces.
They resist forces applied perpendicular or parallel to a surface
A solid is defined as a material that resists pressure forces applied in two or more directions. For example, scissors cutting through paper exert a shear force. The response of a solid to shear is similar to that of a liquid or gas. When shear is constant, the sample changes shape, but it returns to its original state when the shear stress is removed. Shear stress does not affect the volume of a solid.
They have thermal energy
The heat and cold produced by solids is transferred to their surroundings. Thermal energy is generated when solids’ atoms vibrate about their mean positions in a lattice. Solids exhibit thermal energy in various forms, and this energy is commonly associated with the different phases of these substances. A good example is hot chocolate. When the liquid contains the same amount of water as the hot chocolate, the energy is transferred from the liquid to the milk particles, which cools the chocolate down. Solids also exhibit vibratory thermal energy, which is internal to objects.
They have specific heat capacity
A solid’s specific heat capacity (SHC) is the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of a unit mass by one degree Celsius. It is similar to the volume specific heat capacity (VSH) of a liquid. In general, a solid’s SHC is a constant, and this value tends to zero at the Debye temperature, which is close to room temperature. Listed below is a chart of SHC values for different types of solids.