In a nutshell, science is about observing the world and putting your curiosity to thoughtful action. Everyone can think like a scientist. We all have ideas about the way nature works, and we can test those ideas in the real world. Scientists have theories about the way the world works, which they test in real experiments. These theories are known as hypotheses. If they prove to be true, the ideas they generated will have a positive impact on our society.
Concepts of science
The concept of “stability” is an important aspect of scientific thinking. This view describes science as a process of correlating existing facts and accumulating new ones. Its goal is to come up with a harmonious system, and ideally a key to the explanation of the universe. If this concept were true, there would be no need for experiments, labs, or further scientific activity. However, this view does not apply to natural phenomena, such as the motion of stars.
In the United States, science education has traditionally been taught as an isolated discipline. The 8+1 initiative encourages K-12 teachers to use eight science concepts in their lessons to improve student understanding within and across courses. While these eight concepts may seem simple, they are fundamental for understanding how the natural world works. Yet, in schooling, students don’t learn these fundamentals. The concept of “stability” is particularly important. It focuses on the fundamental nature of science and the ways in which it is built.
Methods of achieving knowledge
Aristotle, who formulated the first scientific method in the fifth century BCE, identified the primary aim of inquiry and outlined the appropriate steps to investigate nature. His work provides a commentarial tradition for how the scientific method works, identifying that understanding involves the restatement of unfamiliar definitions, analysis involves free construction of plausible arguments, and synthesis requires rigorous Euclidean exposition of steps and re-examination of the result.
A modern focus on methods has re-emerged from a tradition of philosophical study. Attention to practice is an important focus in the study of scientific methodology and it can be seen as the latest form of examining the methods of science. The methods themselves are not universal or singular, but are descriptive. Therefore, different scientists may use the same methods and yet use them in a slightly different way. Some philosophers have returned to the question of what makes science a unique cultural product.
Ethics of scientific research
There are many aspects of ethical research that may not be clear to new researchers. One of the most significant is the unequal position of the research subjects. Researchers don’t necessarily have the same knowledge and skills as research subjects, and their decision-making abilities may be limited. Another important aspect of research ethics is the researcher’s subjectivity. If the researcher is biased, the research subject’s decision-making may be compromised. Nevertheless, there are many ways to address these ethical concerns.
The ethical concerns of a research project depend on the purpose of the study. Research conducted to fill a gap in knowledge isn’t always beneficial to the research subject. In some cases, deception may be necessary. Milgram’s experiment, for example, caused extreme psychological stress for the subjects. Similarly, incidental learning research results in a minor difference in the test results of participants. For example, a research study investigating the relationship between urination frequency and nearby confederate’s IQ scores may not be ethical.
Impact of scientific research on society
Since the 1990s, the scope of societal impact evaluations has broadened to include societal products, uses, and benefits. Successful research studies often have societal benefits, but they must be translated into marketable, consumable products and services to benefit society. The concept of societal impact, also known as SIAMPI, is based on the social, cultural, environmental, and economic returns of scientific research. This approach is also relevant for research evaluations, as it can make it more effective.
Recent polls show that the public views scientific research in a more negative light than it did five years ago. While most citizens view science as a worthy pursuit, they are less supportive of government spending on research, and more citizens believe that government policies don’t always follow what is best for society. As a result, it is important to remember that scientists are people too, and we can’t expect to be perfect. It’s human nature to make mistakes, but that doesn’t mean that science has no merit.